Herbicide resistance might provide advantages to plants in the wild.
Weedy rice can absorb transgenes derived from genetically modified rice by cross-pollinating. Credit: Xiao Yang
A wide range of crops has been modified genetically so that they become immune to Roundup herbicide glyphosate. ラウンドアップ Farmers can get rid of weeds in their fields using glyphosate, without harming their crops because of this resistance.
Glyphosate blocks an enzyme called EPSP synthase which is responsible for the creation of specific amino acids as well as other molecules. It can also inhibit the growth of plants. The technique of genetic modification employed, for example, in Roundup Ready crops made by the biotechnology giant Monsanto, based in St Louis, Missouri — typically involves inserting genes into the crop’s genome to increase EPSP-synthase’s production. The genes typically come from bacteria that has affected plants.
The plant can endure the negative effects of glyphosate due to its extra EPSP-synthase. Biotechnology labs have also attempted to use plants’ genes to increase EPSP-synthase, partly to make use of an American loophole that permits regulatory approval of transgenes that are not derived from bacteria-based pests.
A few studies have explored whether transgenes like those that confer glyphosate resistant can increase the competitiveness of plants in reproductive success and longevity once they are introduced to wild or weedy cousins by cross-pollination. Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside, stated that the conventional expectation was that any transgene would cause disadvantage in nature when there is no selection pressure. This is because any extra machinery could reduce the performance of the.
Lu Baorong is an ecologist in Fudan University Shanghai. His study shows that glyphosate resistance offers a significant health benefit, even though it’s not applied.
Lu and his colleagues genetically modified the cultivated Rice species to express the EPSP synthase. Then, they crossed-bred it with an plant that was weedy.
The team then allowed cross-breeding offspring to be bred with each other to produce second-generation hybrids. They were genetically identical, with the exception of the copy count and number of the EPSP synthase gene. Like one might expect, the more copies produced higher levels of enzyme and more tryptophan than the unmodified counterparts.
Researchers also found that transgenic hybrids were more photogenic, had more seeds per plant and had 48-125% higher yields of seeds than varieties that were not transgenic.
Lu believes that making weedy invading rice more competitive might make it harder for farmers to repair the damage caused by this bug.
“If the EPSP-synthase genes are introduced in the wild rice plant, their genetic diversity, which is vital to preserve is at risk because the transgene’s genetic make-up could outcompete natural species” Brian Ford-Lloyd who is a plant geneticist at the University of Birmingham, UK. “This is among the most clear examples of extremely plausible damaging effects of GM crops on the environment.”
https://www.nogyoya.com/c/0000000223/0000000427/0000000855/0000000859/5602643 There is a popular belief that genetically engineered crops that have more copies or microorganisms’ genes are less risky than those that only contain their own genes. Lu declares that “our study doesn’t prove this to be the case.”
Researchers have concluded that their findings require a reconsideration of the way that genetically modified crops will be controlled in the future. “Some individuals are claiming that biosafety regulations can be relaxed because we have a high level of comfort with two decades of genetic engineering,” Ellstrand says. ラウンドアップ “But, the study showed that the new technologies still require careful analysis.”