Auto Draft

Herbicide resistance may provide advantages to plants in the wild.

Credit Xiao Yang
A common technique for the genetic modification of plants to make them herbicide resistant has been proven to provide advantages to weedy varieties rice, even when herbicide is not present. The results suggest that this modifications could positively impact wild rice varieties as well as the crops.

Many kinds of crops have been genetically altered to be resistive to the glyphosate. Roundup was the first herbicide that was marketed. Farmers can eliminate most the weeds that grow in their fields with glyphosate without harming their crops by having this resistance.

ラウンドアップ Glyphosate blocks the enzyme EPSP synthase which is responsible for the creation of specific amino acids as well as various other molecules. It also can hinder the growth of plants. The genetic-modification technique is used, for example, in Roundup Ready plants made by Monsanto Biotechnology, a biotech company that is headquartered in St Louis, Missouri. It involves inserting genes into the genome of the crop to increase EPSP synthase-synthase-production.ラウンドアップ+マックスロード/ The genes typically come from bacteria infected with plants.

The plant is able to resist the effects of glyphosate because of the addition of EPSP synthase. Biotechnology labs have also attempted to make use of the genes of plants to increase EPSP-synthase, partly to take advantage of a loophole in the American system that allows for regulatory approval of transgenes not derived by bacterial pests.

There aren’t many studies that have examined the possibility that transgenes like glyphosate-resistant genes can — once introduced to wild or weedy plants through cross-pollination increase the competitiveness of these plants in terms of survival, reproduction and growth. Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside, said that the traditional expectation was that any transgene could cause disadvantage in nature when there was no pressure to select. This is because extra machines would reduce the effectiveness of.

ラウンドアップ Lu Baorong, an ecologist from Fudan University in Shanghai has revised that opinion. He found that glyphosate resistance provides an impressive fitness boost to the weedy version of the popular rice crop Oryza sativa.,2084008038,2084034075&rewrite_ok_wand_re_search=1 Lu and colleagues altered cultivars of rice to improve the production of EPSP synthase. The modified rice was then crossed with a wild ancestor.

ラウンドアップ The team then allowed the offspring of cross-breeding to cross-breed with one other to create second generation hybrids. They were genetically identical apart from the number of EPSP synthase genes they had. The researchers found that the hybrids that had more than one copy of the gene that codes for EPSP synthase expressed more enzyme and produced more tryptophan which is what we expected.

The researchers also found that transgenic hybrids have higher rates of photosynthesis. They also grew more shoots and flowers and produced 48-125% more seeds than the non-transgenic hybrids -without the use of glyphosate.

ラウンドアップ 樹木 Lu believes that making the rice weedy less competitive might make it harder for farmers whose plots are affected by the pest.

“If the EPSP-synthase genes are introduced in the wild rice species their genetic diversity, which is vital to preserve, could be threatened because the transgene’s genotype will outcompete the natural species” says Brian Ford-Lloyd an expert in plant genetics at the University of Birmingham, UK. “This is one of the clearest examples of highly plausible negative consequences [of GM crops] on the environment.”

Many people believe that genetically modified plants that have more copies of their own genes than those from microorganisms are safer. This belief is however questioned by this study. Lu states that the study “shows that this isn’t always the case”.

The finding calls for a reconsideration of the future regulations for genetically modified crops, some scientists claim. Ellstrand states “Some people believe that the biosafety regulations should be eased.” Ellstrand says: This study isn’t proof that the new products are secure.